This tutorial shows how you can conduct an independent t-test in SPSS. Note that, independent (sample) t-test is also called two sample t-test.

It deals with situations where `X`

and _{1}`X`

are from two different groups of people or objects. _{2}

For instance, in this tutorial, we are going to compare how female students differ from male students in writing scores. You can download the dataset here.

**Steps of independent t-test in SPSS**

## Step 1: Select “Independent samples t-test”

Click Analyze, then Compare Means, then “Independent samples t-test”.

## Step 2: Drag variables

Drag “write” as “Test Variable(s)” and “Gender_dummy” as “Grouping Variable(s)”. Further, for Gender_dummy, type 1 and 0 to indicate the group. Note that, 1 represents females and 0 represents males.

## Step 3: Interpret the output of independent t-test in SPSS

**Null Hypothesis:** Men and women do not differ in writing scores.

**Alternative Hypothesis: **Men and women do differ in writing scores.

The following is the output of independent t-test in SPSS. As we can see, female students’ writing score mean is 54.99, whereas male students’ writing score is 50.12. The t-value is -3.734 and the degree of freedom is 198. Of importance, the p-value is smaller than 0.001. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that male students and female students significantly differ in writing scores.