## Chi-square Independence Test in SPSS

The chi-square independence test is a statistical test used to determine if there is a significant association between two categorical variables. It assesses whether the observed frequencies of the variables in a contingency table differ significantly from the expected frequencies under the assumption of independence. SPSS Data for Chi-square Independence Test This hypothetical data set … Read more

## McNemar’s Test in SPSS

This tutorial explains the definition of McNemar’s test, the writing of the null and alternative hypotheses for McNemar’s test, the steps of conducting it in SPSS, and how to interpret the output of McNemar’s test as well as how to report the results. When to Use McNemar’s Test? The McNemar test is used to analyze … Read more

## Linear Mixed Models in SPSS

This tutorial includes the explanation of what a linear mixed model is, how to structure its statistical model, data example, as well as steps for linear mixed models in SPSS. Definition of Linear Mixed Models Linear mixed models (LMMs) are statistical models used to analyze data that have both fixed and random effects. They are … Read more

## How Dummy and Contrast Codings Impact P-values in SPSS

This tutorial discusses how dummy and contrast codings impact p-values in SPSS for linear regressions. Single Categorical Variable We can start with only one Y (numerical data, or continuous data) and one X (categorical data). We keep it simple to only have 4 observations. The cell means are (3+4)/2=3.5 vs. (5+6)/2=5.5, and the difference is … Read more

## Difference between Interval and Ratio Data

The main difference between interval and ratio data lies in the presence or absence of a meaningful zero point and the nature of the numerical values. Interval Data Interval data is a type of quantitative data where the intervals between values are equal and consistent. It has a numerical scale that represents the magnitude of … Read more

## Likert Scales: Ordinal Data or Interval Data

Likert scales are widely used in surveys and questionnaires to assess respondents’ attitudes, opinions, or perceptions. However, there has been ongoing debate regarding whether Likert scales should be classified as ordinal data or interval data. This tutorial aims to explore the nature of Likert scales and provide insights into their appropriate treatment in statistical analysis. … Read more

## How to Read SPSS Files in R

You can use the read_sav() function from the haven library to read SPSS files in R. The syntax of the function is as follows. read_sav(“file_name.sav”) Step 1: Install haven library The first step is to install the library of “haven” into your local computer. install.packages(‘haven’) Step 2: Library it in R Studio As for other libraries, you need … Read more

## Syntax for chi-square test in SPSS

In some situations, the syntax is easier than the visual menu to use in SPSS. This tutorial provides examples of syntax for chi-square test in SPSS. 2 Examples of Syntax for chi-square test in SPSS Example 1: One variable The first example is the one variable chi-square test. The following is example data for one … Read more

## One Variable Chi-Square in SPSS

This tutorial shows how you can do one variable chi-square in SPSS with detailed examples. The following shows two examples, one using Syntax and one using a menu interface. Examples of One Variable Chi-Square in SPSS Example 1 A school is offering 3 courses, and you would like to see whether the number of students … Read more

## Logistic Regression in SPSS

This tutorial shows how you can do logistic regression in SPSS step by step. Logistic regression is a model testing the relationship between Y (which is a binary variable) and X (X can be more than one). logistic regression is also called logit regression. In this tutorial, we are going to use a dataset posted on the UCLA … Read more