## Sample Variance Formula and Calculation by Hand

Sample variance is the measure of the variability in a given sample. A sample is a set of observations that are a subset of a population. Sample Variance Formula The following is the formula for sample variance. where, Data Example The following is a sample of 6 students with math scores. Calculating sample variance by … Read more

## Calculate Standard Deviation in Excel

STDEV(), STDEV.S(), and STDEV.P() can be used to calculate standard deviation in Excel. It depends on if you are calculating sample or population standard deviation. Sample Standard Deviation: Use either STDEV() or STDEV.S(). Population Standard Deviation: Use STDEV.P(). Example 1 The following is a sample of 6 students. You can use =STDEV(B2:B7) to calculate the sample standard … Read more

## Conduct Paired Samples t-test in Excel

This tutorial shows detailed steps of how to do paired-sample t-test in Excel with a data example. Data Example The data table shown below has 3 columns, name, math, and English. We are going to compare if Math and English are significantly different. Hypothesis The followings are the null hypothesis and the alternative one for … Read more

## How to Calculate Two-Factor ANOVA without Replication

ANOVA Two-Factor without Replication is used for a design of two factors (e.g., Factor A and Factor B) and only 1 observation in each cell. For instance, both Factor A and Factor B have two levels, leading to 4 cells in total. Each cell only has 1 observations (see below). Variance Partitioning Two-Factor ANOVA without … Read more

## Difference between ANOVA Two-Factor with Replication and without Replication

You use ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication when each cell only has 1 observation, but use Two-Factor with Replication when each cell has more than 1 observation. For instance, there are two factors, City and Chain Brand. Each has 2 levels, leading to 4 cells (see the figure below). Each cell in the left-hand data table … Read more

## Two-Way ANOVA: Formulas and Calculation by Hand

This tutorial will first show the formulas for Two-way ANOVA and then use an example to show how you can calculate two-way ANOVA by hand. The following depicts the conceptual framework of the variance breaking down for two-way ANOVA. Typically, Two-way is used for experiment data analyses. Data example for two-way ANOVA This is the … Read more

## Two-Way ANOVA in Excel

This tutorial shows how you can do two-way ANOVA in Excel. Different from one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA has two independent variables. Note that, two-way ANOVA is also called two-factor ANOVA. Prepare data and hypothesis writing Suppose Brand A sells its products in city1 and city2, each city with 2 grocery store chains (Grocery store Chain … Read more

## Linear Regression in Excel

This tutorial shows how you can do linear regression in Excel with examples and detailed steps. Steps of Linear Regression in Excel Step 1: Prepare data and hypothesis We want to test how consumer purchase intention can be impacted by price as well as by household income. Thus, consumer purchase intention is the Y, whereas price … Read more

## One-Way ANOVA in Excel

This tutorial shows how you can do one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) in Excel. Note that, one-way ANOVA is also called single factor ANOVA. Steps of One-Way ANOVA in Excel Step 1: Prepare the data Suppose we would like to see whether 3 cities differ in terms of household size. We sample 5 households from each city. … Read more

## How to fix: Data Analysis not Show up in Excel

This tutorial shows how to solve the problem that data analysis does not show up in Excel. That is, you click the “Data” tap, but you can not see find “Data Analysis” module. Steps of fixing “Data Analysis” not show up in Excel Step 1: Click “File” and “Options” Click “File” on the top and … Read more