## How to Create Contingency Table in Excel

You can create a contingency table in Excel using the Pivot Table. This tutorial includes steps showing how to create a contingency table for count data. Data and Resarch Question for Contingency Table The following is the sample data used in Excel. It is a hypothetical data record showing a group of 20 participants’ recent … Read more

## Calculate Population Variance in Excel

You can use the VARP, VAR.P, or VARPA functions in Excel to calculate population variance.  Data Example The following is the data example for population variance. Example of VARP() Type =VARP(B2:B12) in a cell in Excel to calculate population variance. The population variance is 46.23. Example of VAR.P() Type =VAR.P(B2:B12) in a cell in Excel to calculate population variance. The population … Read more

## Calculate Sample Variance in Excel

You can use the VAR, VAR.S or VARA functions to calculate sample variance.  Data Example We are going to use the following sample of 6 students with math scores. The following is how the data looks in Excel. Example of Var() Thus, you can type =VAR(B2:B7) at E2 to calculate sample variance. You can type it anywhere other than E2 … Read more

## How to Calculate Mean in Excel

You can use the syntax of =AVERAGE() to calculate the mean in Excel. Example 1: one column You type the syntax of =AVERAGE(B2:B12) in one cell. Basically you can choose any cells to type that, and I just chose E2 as an example. Example 2: Two columns For data in two different columns, you need … Read more

## Calculate Standard Deviation in Excel

STDEV(), STDEV.S(), and STDEV.P() can be used to calculate standard deviation in Excel. It depends on if you are calculating sample or population standard deviation. Sample Standard Deviation: Use either STDEV() or STDEV.S(). Population Standard Deviation: Use STDEV.P(). Example 1 The following is a sample of 6 students. You can use =STDEV(B2:B7) to calculate the sample standard … Read more

## Conduct Paired Samples t-test in Excel

This tutorial shows detailed steps of how to do paired-sample t-test in Excel with a data example. Data Example The data table shown below has 3 columns, name, math, and English. We are going to compare if Math and English are significantly different. Hypothesis The followings are the null hypothesis and the alternative one for … Read more

## How to Calculate Two-Factor ANOVA without Replication

ANOVA Two-Factor without Replication is used for a design of two factors (e.g., Factor A and Factor B) and only 1 observation in each cell. For instance, both Factor A and Factor B have two levels, leading to 4 cells in total. Each cell only has 1 observations (see below). Variance Partitioning Two-Factor ANOVA without … Read more

## Difference between ANOVA Two-Factor with Replication and without Replication

You use ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication when each cell only has 1 observation, but use Two-Factor with Replication when each cell has more than 1 observation. For instance, there are two factors, City and Chain Brand. Each has 2 levels, leading to 4 cells (see the figure below). Each cell in the left-hand data table … Read more

## Two-Way ANOVA in Excel

This tutorial shows how you can do two-way ANOVA in Excel. Different from one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA has two independent variables. Note that, two-way ANOVA is also called two-factor ANOVA. Prepare data and hypothesis writing Suppose Brand A sells its products in city1 and city2, each city with 2 grocery store chains (Grocery store Chain … Read more

## Linear Regression in Excel

This tutorial shows how you can do linear regression in Excel with examples and detailed steps. Steps of Linear Regression in Excel Step 1: Prepare data and hypothesis We want to test how consumer purchase intention can be impacted by price as well as by household income. Thus, consumer purchase intention is the Y, whereas price … Read more